want to provide you information on every buzzword, lingo, terms and the jargon
you've ever wanted to know about fishing. If we are missing a definition or two
forward it on to us so we can add them. The directions are simple - just click
on the letter your suspect the term begins with and scroll from there. Click the
back button on your browser to get back to the top of this page or the mountain
icon at the end of each letter to do the same.
a hook shape characterized by a round bend and a wide gap.
the bottom section of an insect below the head and thorax
the flexibility properties of a rod; also, the movement of a lure due to
its built-in properties (lip of a crankbait).
Adaptation of a species its environment to meet its basic needs of food,
comfort and reproduction
Adipose Fin the fatty fin located between the dorsal and tail fins of
Aggregation a group of gamefish or preyfish holding in an area, but not
necessarily moving together in a school.
Alkalinity Measure of the amount of acid neutralizing bases.
Alevin a freshly hatched salmon or trout.
Algae any of
a number of groups of simple plants that contain chlorophyll but lack true roots,
stems, and leaves. They live in water or moist ground, and include diatoms, seaweeds,
Alley is an opening between patches of weeds and
the shoreline that are parallel.
Amphidromous fish that migrate
between fresh and salt water for purposes other than spawning.
describes saltwater fish, such as shad and salmon, that migrate to freshwater
rivers to spawn.
Anal Fin the fin located on the underside of a fish's body just ahead
of the tail.
Andra Spectrum an extra-fine synthetic dubbing material
used for small dry fly and nymph bodies. It is an excellent substitute for beaver-belly
underfur. It is available in a wide variety of colors, including fluorescent colors.
Angler One who fishes (derived from the Sanskrit word "anka,"
meaning bend, referring to a curved fishhook.)
Angling a general synonym for "fishing"; it originally meant
fishing with a hook over any other equipment.
the mechanism on a reel that prevents the crank handle from turning backwards.
Aorta the main artery carrying blood from the heart.
Appetite Moods the three basic attitudes of fish toward feeding. (See positive,
neutral, and negative feeding moods.)
Aquatic Insect an insect
that spends at least a portion of its life underwater.
the axle or spindle on which a fly reel's spool revolves.
rear bone of the lower jaw of a fish.
Artificial Bait plugs,
spoons, flies, and other bait that simulate actual creatures that fish feed on.
a natural or artificial scent that is designed to mask human and offessive odors
to fish. Artifical Lure manufactured lures made form a variety of materials
to attract stikes by simulating natural bait or by appealing to a fish's aggressive
or curious instincts.
Attractant h and is considered to attract
fish to a lure.
Attractor a fly or other artificial bait that
is not designed to resemble a specific insect or other live bait, but simply to
suggest one that would appeal to a fish.
Auger a drill used
to cut holes in the ice to get access to the fish under the ice.
Reel a fly reel with a spring mechanism that retrieves the line without manual
extra line on a fly reel between the fly line and the spool. Backing provides
underlying bulk that speeds rewinding the fly line, as well as providing additional
line, if needed, to play a fish.
Backlash a tangle of line on
a reel caused by the spool's rotating faster than the line is being rewound. Also
called "overrun" or "bird's nest."
using your hand on the handle of the reel of a spinning reel to wind backwards
instead of using the reels built in gear drag. Used by those that fear reel drag
causes line breakage.
Backtrolling a system of boat control involving
moving a boat slowly in reverse while using lure or bait presentations (casting
Backwaters normally, a shallow-water area off a
Badger a feather or hair color pattern in which there is
a black base and white or light cream ends.
Bag the mesh sack
portion of a landing net.
Bag Limit maximum number or weight
of fish that can be taken from a particular body of water. Check with local authorities
in your area for current regulations.
Bail Pickup the revolving
arm on a spinning reel that picks up the line during the rewinding process.
Bait anything that a fish will eat including store bought marshmallows.
Baitcasting tackle that involves a baitcasting, or "level-wind,"
Baitfish various species of fish, such as minnows, sought
as food by larger fish and used as bait by anglers.
long needle used to mount dead fish and other large baits onto terminal tackle.
Balance Beam hand held scales that helps fishing pros determine the
smallest of two bass.
Balance Tackle concept of the rod, line,
reel and terminal tackle should complement each other in such a way that they
create an optimal system. E.g. twenty pound line doesn't belong on a rod designed
to handle only four pound line. Balanced tackle allows you to catch and land more
Banks right bank of the river is on your right when you
are facing downstream, and the left bank is on your left.
a long ridge in a body of water. Commonly referred to as a shoal.
a reverse projection at the end of a hook to prevent the hook from sliding
out of a fish's mouth. Also, an individual fiber of feather.
Hook a hook without a barb. Used on some regulated streams, rivers and impoundments
around the world.
Basic Nature a species' inherent makeup or tendencies
which determine its niche or place in an environment.
are the three basic survival requirements of any species of fish - food, comfort
Basin depression in the Earth's surface; the
drainage system of a river system; large depression that contains and ocean and
the rivers that drain into it (Pacific basin)
Basin Zone a lake
zone. The area lying below the deep-water zone, beginning where hard bottom ends
and soft bottom begins. This zone includes the deepest water area.
Boat a boat typically made from fiberglass or aluminum with a high-performance
engine, bow-mounted trolling motor, live well, rod storage, and electronic fish
Bass Bugs are flies that are tied from various
animal furs to imitate, frogs, mice, and minnows used on a fly rod.
is a major indentation in the shoreline of a lake or reservior.
Eyes these are made from a chain of small, hollow metal beads joined together
with wire links. Two of the beads joined by a link are used for a pair of eyes.
Bead chains are available in most hardware stores, in many fly-tying supply stores,
and from catalogs.
Bead Wire this is a fine-gauge, stiff wire
used to join wooden, glass, or metal beads together for jewelry or decorative
design. This is available in most arts and crafts shops.
nursery that fish create in shallow water from fanning their tails on a loose
gravel or sandy bottom to hatch and raise their eggs.
a specific pieces of shoreline assigned to you to fish during a European style
fishing match that you must not leave or stray from.
Bell Sinker a
pear shaped sinker with a brass eye on the top.
Belly the thickest
section of a fly line.
Bend the curved portion of a hook.
Big game the largest game fish, such as tuna, sailfish, and sharks.
Billfish species of fish, such as swordfish, sailfish, and marlins,
that are characterized by the "swords" that extend from their snouts.
Biology the study of all living things.
total mass of all the living organisms in a given area or in a given body of water
Biot the short leading edge of a goose quill,
used in fly-tying.
Bivvy sleeping bag/tent that can be placed
on a lawnchair or cot.
Biting the feeding action of a hungry fish.
Blank a bare rod, before guides and other accessories
have been attached.
Blank-through handles A feature on modern
fishing rods on which the rod blank, or shaft, extends all the way down through
the handle. This provides for more sensitivity when holding the rod, because vibrations
caused by a fish hitting a bait are more easily felt by the angler.
refers to a place on the bank where a tree has been blown into the water by
natural means or cut to fall into the water creating a fish habitat.
Blown the process flies use to plant maggot eggs on dead animals
Bluebird Day clear, sunny and windy day after a cold front which makes
Blue-water describes fishing the deepest areas
of ocean (as distinguished from Offshore and Inshore fishing).
sheer rock structure associated with deep water.
Boat use to aid bait or lure presentation. (See backtrolling, controlled drifting,
front trolling, speedtrolling)
Bobber (see float)
the fly-tying tool that holds a spool of thread.
needle used in fly-tying as a general purpose tool for picking out fur, feathers
and applying glue. Commonly referred to as a "needle on a stick".
Boil swirel of water created when a fish has gone after a lure but
Boilies ball of bait made from a variety of ingredients
with egg as its primary component which holds the balls as it is boiled. The bait
is primarily used for carp fishing world wide.
Boot-Foot a wader
with an attached boot (stocking-foot waders).
Bottom Bumper a
lure or rig which strikes the bottom
Bottom Configuration a locational
factor; the relative make-up (shape, size, depth, islands, etc.) of an area of
Bottom Content bottom types in a body of water (rock,
sand, gravel, silt, muck, submerged cribs, brush and/or trees, etc.)
Bowfishing fishing with a bow and arrow. It is permitted on many American
waters, and the quarry is usually fish such as carp that are competing with more
highly prized species such as bass. The arrow is tied to the end of the line,
and the reel is mounted on the bow.
Brackish describes water
having a lower saline content than normal seawater, usually found where a freshwater
stream or river meets the ocean.
Brackish Water water that is
slightly salty. (see also Salinity)
Break is any change in an
otherwise regular terrain or bottom.
Breaking Strain maximum load
or weight that a line, swivel, or other piece of tackle can sustain without breaking.
Breakline is a point in a body of water where there is a definite
increase in depth as is a sudden or gradual weedline, brushline; edge of a channel
or hole or where two bodies of water meet and differ in temperature, oxygen, and/or
Breakline, Secondary a second or auxiliary point of
change. For example, a second definite increase in depth after the first drop-off.
Brushline the inside or outside edge of a line of brush.
Brush Pile is a typically man made structure from old Christmas trees
that are weighted and sunk in a placed to attract fish.
a lure or streamer fly having a tail made of long strands of deer hair.
Bulk Shot number of split shot grouped together on a line to concentrate
the weight at a particular point.
Bump a fish's investigatory
prodding of the bait, often before striking.
Buss Fuse Lead Wire
a lead fuse wire produced by Buss Fuse Company and often used by fly tiers
to weight flies. One-half, one, two, three, and four amp sizes are most practical
for this purpose. One half-amp size is ideal for hook sizes 16 to 20; one-amp
for sizes 10 to 14; two-amp for sizes 4 to 8; three-amp for sizes 2/0 to 2; and
four-amp for sizes 5/0 to 3/0.
Butt the rear portion of a rod.
Butt Cap the protective device, usually made of metal, plastic,
or cork, found at the butt end of a fly rod.
Butt Leader a section
of 25-35lbs stiff mono fishing line usually 8-15 inches in length and is useful
in assisting leaders to turn over better while casting
Butt Pad leather
or ruber pad, strapped around the wrist, into which a butt of a rod is placed
so a lever is created to put greater leverage when fighting larger fish. Also
known as a rod socket.
Buzzbait a lure having a propeller that
churns the surface during the retrieval in order to attract fish.
refers to the any number of pondweeds that attract game fish.
an insect of the order Trichoptera, characterized by swept-back wings; also,
an insect that goes through a complete metamophisis much like a butterfly.
Calendar, In-Fisherman a calendar based on ten identifiable periods
of activity for various species of gamefish. These ten periods constitute a fish
Calendar Period any of the ten periods of fish activity
in the In-Fisherman Calendar.
Canal is a man made waterway used
Cane an entire stalk of bamboo.
(fly-tying) the portion of a bird's feathers from the neck to the base of
Carlisle a hook shape characterized by a long shank.
Carolina Rig deep water rig that includes a heavy sinker above
a barrel swivel with a leader about three feet long attached. The hook is tied
on the end of the leader.
Carrying Capacity Maximum density of
organisms that a body of water can sustain.
Cast to throw a line
and its bait onto the water.
Caster maggot that is changing into
the chrysalis form of the fly.
Catadromous describes fish that
migrate from freshwater to salt water to spawn.
term for slingshot. Different when used for fishing it has a bait basket so you
can place chum where you need it to get the bite.
of the willingness of fish to bite lures or bait.
the philosophy and practice of returning all fish back into the body of water
from which they were taken.
Catskill Dry Fly the traditional
dry fly pattern, marked by upright wings, hackle collar, slim body, and long tail.
Caudal Fin the fish's tail.
relatively slender part of a fish's body between the last dorsal and anal fins
and the base of the tail fin (the caudal fin). It is also known as the "wrist"
of the fish.
CFS cubic feet per second, a measurement of water
Channel is the bed of a stream or river.
Boatto hire a boat, or a boat that is available to hire for one day or up
to a month or more.
Chenille a popular fly-tying material, made
from short soft fibers twisted into a cord (French for "caterpillar").
Chum (Chumming) to attract fish by dumping or scattering food
in the water.
Clean Bottom the bottom (usually hard bottom) of
a body of water that is free of debris, etc.
Cleithrum a bone
at the rear of the skull of a fish. It is the main bone supporting the pectoral
fin (see also Pectoral fin, Supracleithrum).
,Clevis the swivel
device to which a spinner blade is attached and which allows the blade to rotate.
Climate average weather conditions for a region.
Vertical or horizontal section of a body of water where water characteristics
Coarse Fish British term that refers to any freshwater
fish that is not a trout, grayling or salmon.
Coarse Fishing any
freshwater fish of angling interest other than gamefish and panfish.
Cock the male of the salmon and several other species of fish.
Cold Front develops when cold air displaces warm air at the ground. It
usually means the fishing will slow down in a given area.
Period a period of the fish cycle which occurs twice, in early spring between
the Winter and Prespawn Periods, and in late fall between the Turnover and Winter
Periods. Usually applied to the fall season.
Collar the area of
an artificial fly directly behind the head.
Color of the water Clarity
of the water--clear, dingy, muddy, etc.
Comfort zone The area
offering conditions in which a fish feels comfortable and seeks out. These may
include water temperature, water clarity, light level, and other conditions.
Community Group of interacting organisms within an area.
CompetitiveSpeciesasocial condition involving the relationship of species
within a body of water, particularly for available food and spawning areas.
Confined Open Water an area of open water in direct association to
a structural element, as opposed to an expansive area which is far away from it.
Controlled Drift a system of boat control using an outboard, electric
trolling motor or oars to keep a boat drifting along a specific course.
Controller floating device attached to the line that helps in line placement
when fishing (not meant to be used as a float).
Controls How anglers
vary the depth and speed of lures or baits.
Conventional a saltwater
fishing term for baitcasting, used to describe a "conventional rod"
or "conventional reel."
Coontail an aquatic plant from
the hornwort family that is typically found in hard water. The plant id characterized
by stiff, forked leaves.
Cosmic Clock the sun's effect on water
and local weather factors, such as barometric pressure, wind, cloud cover, seasonal
Countdown method A method to determine the retrieve
depth of a sinking lure and achieve depth consistency during repeated casts and
Cove a flooded creek arm or indentation along a shoreline
of a lake or river.
Cover any object in the water that fish can
Crank another word for a reel's "handle".
Crankbait a plug designed to dive below the surface as it is
Cree a cock hackle feather barred with three colors.
The colors are usually white to light grey, tan to reddish brown, and dark grey
Creek Channel reference on a lake where the creek on
the bank continues underwater the bank is patterned by your depth finder.
Creel a wicker basket or canvas container in which "keeper"
fish are stored.
Creel limit The number of fish an angler can
keep as set by local or state regulations.
Crimpto squeeze down
a hook's barb or split-shot sinker.
Cross-His-Eyes Slang for
using a powerful hook set when a fish strikes the lure.
a hard-shelled, aquatic invertebrate with pinchers. Commonly referred to as
a Crayfish or Crawdad.
CSE- Single Strand Floss a Danville product
introduced and initially distributed by Creative Sports Enterprises. It is a heavy-duty,
flat-floss tying thread.
Cul De Canard the oily waterproof feathers
on the rear of a duck, used in fly-tying.
Cull process of releasing
the smallest fish after catching a limit.
Cup the concave bend
of a spinner blade; the deeper the "cup," the more vibration the rotating
blade will produce.
Current is water moving in one direction,
which may be interrupted or redirected over or around objects in the water.
Current break The location or area where current is altered or blocked
by some structure or topography in a stream or river bottom. Also, the zone where
current is bordered by calm water.
Cut a small reservoir bay without
an active inflowing creek.
Cut Bait cut up portion of a fish that
is used to attrack fish by their sense of smell on a hook or resting on the bottom.
a popular polyester synthetic used for fishing line.
man-made barrier to water flow.
Dampen (of a rod) to recover its
original position after being flexed during a cast.
Strand Floss same as CSE Single Strand Floss.
and extra long rod with a line made of floss and letting the wind make the fly
dip and bob lightly on the surface of the water.
Dark-Bottom Bay Shallow,
protected bay with a layer of dark organic material on the bottom that warms quickly
Dave'sBug Float a silicone-based waterproofing paste
and scent masking agent.
Dead Drift fly fishing technique in which
the fly (dry or wet) travels at the same speed as the current.
dead fish or other creatures used as bait for predators.
fly invented by Lefty Kreh that imitates a minnow or bait fish primarily in
Deep-water Zone a lake zone. Hard bottom
lying below the first major deop-off and below the open water zone. It ends where
soft bottom begins.
Defeo style a method of legging or bearding
a fly in which a single feather is stripped of fibers so that an equal number
of fibers remain on the left and right sides of the stem. The stem is tied in
so that the fibers slope down and beneath the fly's body.
Fish fish that live in deep water or on the sea floor.
the front bone of the lower jaw of a fish.
in the dissolved oxygen content of a water, caused by hot weather or the introduction
of pollutants such as sewage. Excessive deoxygenation of fatal to fish.
Depth Finder an electronic device on a boat that measures and displays
the distance fro the boat to the bottom of the water. Some units will indicate
fish by bars or dots on the screen as well.
Depth Control puts
the lure at the level where the fish are.
silt and organic debris on the bed of a river or stillwater.
Wax a soft, tacky, dubbing wax and fly float.
Dineer (Nylon Tow
Floss) Dineer pertains to the size of the fibers, nylon tow refers to a particular
material used for tying flies, especially steelhead attractor and egg patterns.
Dink undersized, non-keeper, short fish.
Disc Drag mechanism
that produces resistance on a reel spool by means of a brake like friction disc.
Disgorger remove hooks from a fish's mouth in a humane manner.
Dissolved Oxygen oxygen chemically bound into water by forces such
as wind and plants. It is utilized by fish.
Disturbance Pattern wet
or dry fly pattern that creates a fish attracting disturbance when retreived or
worked across the current.
Diurnal Occurring within a 24-hour
Doodling deep water finesse method that has you
vertically shaking a small lure on light line.
Dorsal Fin one
or more fins located on the back of a fish or on its highest part.
Double Haul (fly-fishing) to haul on the line twice, first during the back
cast and again during the forward cast.
Double-Tappered a fly
line that is tapered the last three feet at both ends
Level of fishing pressure that reduces fishing quality and abundance of large
Down Locking Reel Seat place a the butt end of a fly rod
that holds the fly reel into position. Not recommended for most fishing since
the reel seat has a tendency to loosen while fishing and drop off the rod.
Downrigger a cable-and-weight device that maintains bait at a certain
depth and then releases the line when a fish strikes.
Drag (1) The
action of a fly drifting on or through the water than the current in which it
Drag (2) to slow the speed with which line leaves
the reel by increasing friction on the line. Also, a mechanism on a reel (also
called the "drag knob") that regulates such resistance.
Drift (of a fly) carried entirely by the current, with non resistance from
Drainage a drainage basin or a drainage system; the
process of draining.
Drainage Basin the catchment area of a river
Drainage System a system for draining a river and its
Dress to clean line of dirt and other debris; also,
to tie a fly.
Drop-off is the point at which there is a definite
increase in depth.
Dropper a second fly attached to a leader,
either two nymphs or two dry flies but often a dry fly and a nymph with the dry
used as a strike indicator.
Dry Fly a fly that is fished floating
on the surface.
Dry-fly Saddle a hackle feather from the back
of a rooster. The feather is relatively webless and very stiff. This feather is
most suitable for tying larger (size 4 to 10) dry-fly collars, ribs, and tails.
Dubbing (fly-tying) fur or fur-like material used to replicate an
Dun (fly-fishing) one of various shades of gray
used in fly tying Also used to refer to a full grown adult insect.
Cast (fly-fishing) a cast in which the fly does not touch the water. False-casting
is used to gain line speed, extend the amount of line, change direction of the
line or dry a soaked dry fly.
Fan Cast is effective since you
make a series of cast systematically to cover a given area completely.
Farm Pond Small man-made body of water.
Fast Action (of
a rod) having an action in which most of the bend is in the tip end
Feathering slowing down the speed of the line while casting by placing
a finger lightly on the spool
Fecundity Number of eggs produced
by a female in a season.
Feeder Creek Tributary to a stream.
Feeding Spot the largeblack mark on fresh maggots
Strategy Behaviors used for capture of prey.
Ferrule the plug
or the socket at the end of a section of a multi-section rode, by which the rod's
sections are joined.
Fertility Degree of productivity of plants
Fiberglass rod material made of flexible glass filaments
embedded in resin.
Fighting Chair a swivel chair bolted to the
deck of a boat, from which a big-game angler can fight marlin and other large,
powerful fish that can take a long time to subdue. The angler is strapped in by
a harness, and either the harness or the chair is equipped with a butt pad or
Filter Feeder a fish that feeds by filtering plankton
from the water.
Fighting Butt an extension to a rod butt designed
to provide greater leverage in fighting a large fish; the angler usually presses
the butt against his stomach.
Fingerling a young fish that measures
just a few inches long (the next stage after Fry).
Finesse Bait downsized
bait or lures that are used to trick finicky fish into striking.
Attractor manmade brush pile, stakebed, mat or crib designed to provide cover
and attract fish.
Fish Contact locating fish, usually by catching
them. Includes visual observation.
Fish Culture Production of
fish in hatcheries.
Fish Cycle all ten Calendar Periods
Fished Down Fish populaton adversely affected by fishing pressure.
Fishery Group of fish that support fishing.
Person who studies interaction of fishermen and fisheries.
A general term for a sonar unit that displays fish as well as bottom contours
on paper or a video screen. Also called a depth finder or chart recorder.
Fishing Lure Any inanimate object that imitates something that fish
eat and has hooks in order to catch a fish.
Fish Ladder a series
of interconnected pools created up the side of a river obstruction, such as a
dam, to allow salmon and other fish to pass upstream.
On!" (as in "a fish is on the line") a shout that indicates
the shouter has hooked a fish.
Fisherman Peron catching fish
by an;y means, usually by angling.
Fishing Pressure the number
of anglers using a body of water, and/or how sophisticated their approach is.
Five-minute epoxy a two-part epoxy cement that usually begins to set
or harden within five minutes of mixing. It is available in most variety, grocery
and hardware stores.
Flasher Lights on a circular dial that reveals
depth of the water and where the fish are oriented between the surface and bottom.
Flat is a shallow body of water that has little if any change in depth.
Flats a shallow coastal sandy-bottom expanse, most usually in semitropical
waters and a prime area for bonefishing.
Flight group of boats
that leave at an assigned time during a tournament to achieve a staggered start
and return at the end of the tournament to the weigh-in in their flight
Flipping to cast a rod in an underhand manner that presents the lure quietly
and accurately in heavy cover.
Flippin' Stick Heavy-action fishing
rod, 7 to 8 feet long, originally designed for bass fishing.
a carved piece of wood usually made of balsa, used as a strike indicator
Float Stop Adjustable rubber bead or thread, set on line above float
to determine fishing depth.
Float Tube a one-person buoyant chair-like
apparatus for lake or pond fishing, in which an angler sits and propels himself
by means of flippers on his feet.
Floatant a chemical or another
substance used to keep a fly buoyant.
Fluorescent Emits radiation
when exposed to sunlight.
Fly an artificial imitation of an insect
of another living bait.
Flymph describes the aquatic insect emergence
stage between nymph and adult. The term was first used by James Leisenring and
Vernon S. Hidy in the book The Art of Tying the Wet Fly and Fishing the Flymph.
Flyrite a synthetic fiber tying material used for dubbing and wings.
Flyrite Poly II fine-fibered synthetic dubbing and winging material
available in sheets.
Food Chain of organisms that feed on one
another from the smallest to the biggest where the links in the chain obtains
energy from the one preceding it when eats.
Food-Producing Area portions
of a body of water with the charactristics necessary to stimulate food-chain production;
usually the littoral or shoreline-connected (shallow) areas, because they receive
sunlight which fuels plant photosynthesis, which in turn stimulates each successive
step in the food chain.
Foot one of two projections on the base
of a fly reel that attaches to the rod seat.
to be eaten; the act of eating.
Foul-Hook to hook or snag a fish
anywhere but in its mouth.
Front weather condition that passes
and effects the activity level of fish.
northern lake subject to fish kills in late winter due to oxygen depletion.
Freeze-Up Short period when ice first covers the surface of a body
Fresh-Run Fish refers to a migratory fish, like a salmon
that has just left the sea and is traveling up a stream or river to spawn.
Freshwater water of most rivers, lakes and ponds, containing little
of no dissolved salts.
Front Trolling a system of boat control
with the boat moving forward.
Fry a newly-hatched fish.
Furnace a color pattern on hackle or hair in which there is a dark brown
or black base and dark golden to dark brown edges or ends.
seats, supports, chairs etc. that you set up on the bank for catching fish
in a pegged match or for fun.
a hook mounted on a long handle, used to land large fish.
any fish valued for its sporting qualities.
Gap (of a hook)
the span as measured directly between the shank and the point (sometimes "gape").
Gear Ratio Measure of a reel's retrieve speed; the number of
times the spool revolves for each complete turn of the handle.
The study of mechanisms of heredity.
Geology the science dealing
with the earth's physical history.
Ghillie a Scottish word for
a guide or gamekeeper. also gillie.
Gill a pair of breathing-apparatus
organs located behind a fish's head.
Gill Arch the structure
behind the gill covers of a bony fish (or within the gill slits of a cartilaginous
fish) that supports the gill filaments and gill rakers.
the parts of a fish's gills that obsorb oxygen from the water.
Rakers toothlike projections on the gill arches. They can be used to trap
food items, such as plankton, carried in the water flowing through the gills.
Gink another word for Floatant. Typically used as a dressing for dry
flies to keep them floating on the surface.
Glacial Deposit materials
such as gravel, sand, clay, etc. carried and deposited by a glacier.
Gonads the reproductive organs that are responbsible for the production
of sperm or eggs. (See Testes, Ovaries).
Gozzers soft maggots
that are highly prized by match or course fishermen.
of slope in a stream or riverbed.
Grain unit of weight used in
the classification of fly lines.
"Grand Slam" a saltwater
fly-fishing term for catching a bonefish, a permit, and a tarpon in the same day.
Greenheart a tropical American tree, Ocotea Rodiac; its wood
was once used for making fishing rods.
Grilse a young Atlantic
mature but undersized male salmon on it first spawning migration run, usually
after one and a half to two years in the sea.
Grip the handle
of a rod, usually made of cork or synthetic foam.
Grizzly a color
pattern of distinctive bands or bars of black and whte or light grey.
Ground Bait is a mixture of bait, bait parts, and other attractant compounds
on a base whose primary purpose is to give the bait body and weight.
Ground Baiting throwing a large quanity of bait into pre-selected pools
to attract fish.
Grub plastic or rubber lure with a straight or
curvey tail that is riggedto a lead head.
Guardhairs the long,
stiff outer hairs found on most animals.
Guide one of the metal
ring devices along the length of a rod through which line is threaded. Also, someone
hired to escort a fisherman to likely places to fish and render advice with regard
to bait, tackle, etc.
Fishing a specialized form of angling, developed in North America, for fishing
through holes cut in the ice of frozen-over waters. The species sought include
crappies, walleye, northern pike, pickerel, and perch, and the principal techniques
are jigging and tilt (or tip-up) fishing. Jigging involves working a natural bait
with a short stick, which has a specially shaped handle around which the line
is wound. In tilt fishing, the bait is fished static from a rig incorporating
an arm or flag that tilts up to signal a bite.
Ice-Out Short period
during which ice on a body of water completely melts.
the scientific study of fish and their habits.
Game & Fish Association) maintains lists of world class line records and also
sets the technicals standards for the fishing tackle industry.
an insect's adult stage of life, especially when it is in its mating stage.
See also Spinner.
Imitator a fly or other artificial bait designed
to resemble a specific species of insect or other live bait.
an artificial or natural body of water where it is collected and stored for
Infilling the process by which higher surrounding terrain
tends to fill in lower terrain.
Inside Edge (of weeds) a line
of weeds between the shoreline and the weedline, or the shallow edge of a particular
weed type. (See outside edge of weeds.)
Introperculum in bony
fish, the front lower bone of the gill cover.
Inline spinner is
designed where a blade revolves around a straight wire with components on it to
resemble a minnow or insect.
Inshore describes saltwater fishing
close to land (as distinguished from Offshore and Blue-Water Fishing).
Invertebrate a creature that has no backbone, for instance an insect or
plugs that move with no built-in action of their own; any action comes from
the fisherman's maneuvering the rod and line.
Jetty A line of
large rocks extending from a riverbank toward the channel, for the purpose of
directing current and steering the course of the river.
lure composed of a metal head to which feathers, a plastic skirt, or another attractor
is attached. Also, to fish by jerking bait up and down in a vertical plane.
Jig-and-Pig rubber skirted jig with a pork chunk trailer that creates
the appearence of a live crayfish.
Jigger Poling old time technique
of using a long pole (25ft) and a short, heavy test (25lbs) line about 12-18"
long with a modified spinnerbait or large crankbait. Trolling along the end of
weed beds and smacking the surface of the water with the lure in the openings
in the weeds.
Jigging jerking a jig or other bait up and down
in the water column.
Jigworm Plastic worm rigged on an open-hook
a term that describes anything or, relating to, or living in lakes.
Ladder See Fish Ladder.
Laggie's Glos Cote a thin, clear,
acrylic fly-tying cement that is fast-penetrating and flexible.
or sheltered spot in the water where a fish can rest, hide from predators, or
wait for food to come by.
Lake Confined area where water accumulates
Lake Classifications broad categories of lake types:
oligotrophic (young) mesotrophic (middle-aged), eutropic (old).
Forces forces such as ice, wave and wind erosion, etc., which can change the
characteristics of a body of water.
Lake Type bodies of water
with characteristics similar enough to be viewed from an angling standpoint in
much the same manner. (See lake classifications.)
Lake Zones four
designated In-Fisherman water zones: shallow water, open water, deep water and
Land tocapture a fish after it has been played on
Larva is the second stage of development in a caddis
life cycle that is identified in the stream by its wormlike appearance.
Lateral Line a series of tiny pores running the length of a fish's side
that sense sound vibrations.
Latex a natural rubber available
in sheets from which sections are often cut for use in wrapping bodies or making
nymph wingcases or legs.
LCD generic term used by fishermen referring
to a modern screen display depth finder (Liquid Crystal Display).
a length of monofilament, wire, or another material that connects a hook to
Ledge Sharp contour break in a river or reservoir.
Left Bank See Banks.
Leger line or device which connects
to the weight.
Legering British term used for a variety of bottom
Length limit A specified length range of fish
limits. (Most length limits are "minimum" limits, though "maximum"
or "slot" limits are sometimes imposed on certain species.)
Level Wind a device on some baitcasting reels that moves back and forth
across the spool to distribute the line evenly during the rewind. lie (of a fish)
to rest with little or no movement.
Light penetration The amount
of light and the distance it penetrates a given body of water, normally determined
by sky condition and water clarity.
Limerick a hook type having
a much sharper angle from bend to point than from shank to bend.
the maximum number of caught fish that may be legally kept, usually on a daily
basis by state or local regulations. Also is the predetermined number of fish
you can catch and cull for a fishing tournament.
study of ponds, lakes, and other freshwater bodies with regard to their physical
and biological characteristics.
Line the cord mounted on a reel
to which a hook and other terminal tackle are attached.
Pin the device on a spin-casting reel that rewinds the line.
is the loop to weight distance in a Paternoster Rig.
plastic or metal projection on a crankbait that produces its diving action.
Lipping method of landing a fish by gripping its mouth.
Littoral of or pertaining to the shore of an ocean or other coastal water.
Littoral Zone shallow-water zone of ocean or other coastal water.
Livebait worms, minnows, and other living creatures used for bait
Live-well a tank or similar receptacle on
a boat in which fish can be stored alive.
Loading the process
by which a rod takes on the weight of a lure or fly line to a rod during the back
cast, thus giving the rod the potential energy ready to propel the lure or line
Local Weather Factors prevailing weather conditions
affecting the day-to-day locational patterns of a fish species.
Where fish position themselves in a body of water.
Pattern where, why and how a species positions itself to take advantage of
Long-Cast Reels Spinning reels with extra-tall
spools that allow line to spiral off easily and with little friction, increasing
the casting distance. This has proven to be such a successful design that some
manufacturers are incorporating long-cast spools into all their spinning reel
"Long-Distance-Release"(LDR) a rueful euphemism
for losing a fish before it can be landed.
Loose-Action Plug a
lure with wide, distinct, side-to-side movements.
Low-water Fly a
sparsely dressed fly on a small hook, used mostly for salmon fishing in shallow
Lunker anespecially large fish, most usually applied to
bass, pickerel, and muskies.
Lure a general term for any kind
of artificial bait that immitates a fishes natural food source.
Manipulation of biological system to produce a fishery goal.
the bar around which fiberglass or graphite is wrapped to form a rod blank.
Marabou blood feather the very small, soft or stemless side and
underfeathers from a chicken, turkey, or similar fowl.
of the sea typically that is good fishing. Found and recorded typically by using
GPS or navigational charts.
Marker Bouy a plastic bouy, usaually
in a fluorescent color, that is tossed in the water to identify a fish holding
area or a school of fish.
Marl deposits of sand, clay, and silt
with a high concentration of shells (calcium carbonate).
a long, slender spoon that can be passed down the gullet of a dead fish to
remove its stomach contents. It is used mainly by trout anglers to find out what
the fish are actually feeding on at a given time.
Match The Hatch
to select a fly or lure that closely resembles the species of insect, bait
fish or forage that a fish is feeding on at the given time you are on the water.
Material Clip or Holder usually a spring or a clip that is attached
to the tyers vise. It holds materials out of the way.
insect of the order Ephemeroptera, characterized by large upright front wings;
also, dry flies or nymphs that imitate such insects.
rear bone of the upper jaw of a fish.
McKenzie Boat banana shaped
boat that can seat two anglers that can stand to fish and a person to row. Very
agile and stable on a body of water.
Mend to adjust the position
of a fly line on the water in relation to the fly's position and the current's
speed(s), in order to allow the fly to float drag-free.
lake classification describing middle-aged bodies of water between oligotrophic
(young) and eutrophic (old) classifications.
Microweb a synthetic, "veined" wing
material made in very thin sheets for fly-tying.
Midge a member
of the insect family Chironomiidae, or a term for any small fly (size 20 or smaller).
Migration any course a fish takes as they move from one area
to another. Usually seasonal.
Milt the semen of a male fish;
a term for the semen-filled testes and sperm ducts of a male fish, also known
as soft roe.
Minnowbait Long, thin, minnow-shaped wood or plastic
lure; a wobbling bait.
Modified Release a kind of marine fishing
tournament in which only fish below a stipulated sized are released.
Modulus the stiffness of a graphite rod as expressed per square inch.
Monkey Climbers plastic or metal cylinders which travel up and down
a rod planted between two rod rests. The main line is placed on the climber to
be adjusted to be halfway between the top and bottom of the indicator rod. Fish
strike will cause the indicator to move showing a feeding fish on your bait.
Monocord a flat, nylon medium-strong floss thread made by the Danville
Monofilament a single strand of nylon line used
as lines and leaders.
Mooching a technique used primarily for
steelhead in the Pacific Northwest, in which live bait is allowed to drift carried
by the tidal flow.
Moraine a mass of rocks, sand, etc., deposited
by a glacier.
Mottled Blotchy coloration.
the locational shift of fish from one area to another on a daily or even hourly
basis. Also can refer to fish changing from a neutral to a positive feeding mood,
with fish shifting only a few feet from a resting to an advantageous feeding position.
A directional movement is usually made at a fast rate of speed and from one specific
area to another. A random movement is slow, milling activity within a specific
Mucilin a popular English waterproofing parafin wax paste
or liquid compound for flies, leaders, and lines.
Muddler a wet
fly having a clipped deer-hair head, designed to resemble the sculpin baitfish.
Mudline The zone where muddy water borders clear or dingy water,
with the two appearing distinctly different in color.
Reel a reel having a spool that turns more than once for each revolution of
the crank handle, thus producing a faster line retrieval than on a comparable
Mylar strips a strong, ultra-thin, plastic
film cut into strips for fly wings or body material.
a nylon thread wrapped with Mylar plastic and used for tying thread, ribbing,
or body material.
Fishingdescribing saltwater fishing beyond inshore areas, but closer to land
than blue-water areas. Usually out of sight of land.
Oligotrophic lake classification used to describe young
bodies of water characterized by deep, clear, cold, weedless water which can support
fish such as lake trout and whitefish.
Omnivore Organism that
eats a wide variety of items.
Ooh baby - Ooh baby southern expression
used when you have a fish on and to let those around you know that you really
can catch one every now-and-then.
Open-water Zone a lake zone.
The upper water layer from the outside edge of the first major drop-off down to
the deep-water zone.
Operculum in bony fish, the uppermost and
largest of the gill cover bones.
Opportunistic Feeding strategy
in which items are eaten according to availablility.
Orlon a soft
synthetic fiber, Orlon knitting yarn is particularly good for dubbing.
Orlon sparkle knitting yarn an Orlon knitting yarn with clear Gantron nylon
fibers blended in to add sparkle. This is available in material, knitting shops,
and craft stores.
Osmosis the process by which a fish takes in
or excretes water through its skin in order to maintain the correct balance of
salts and fluids within its body tissues.
Otoliths oval, stonelike
structures within the ears of a fish or other vertebrate, which help it to maintain
its balance; they are also known as ear stones.
level of fish harvest from a body of water that substantially reduces abundance
of catchable fish, particularly large fish.
Overwintering Area Area
where fish hold during winter, particularly in cold climates.
Edge (of weeds): the weedline. The outside edge of a line of weeds.
Outrigger an apparatus used in trolling that positions one or more rods
away from the wake of a boat.
Outrigger Flotation wings, body
fibers, or tails extending to the side of a dry fly to assist in support and flotation
on the surface film.
Ovathe eggs of a fish or other creature.
The mass of eggs within the ovarian membranes of a female fish is termed hard
Ovaries the reproductaive glands (gonads) of a female fish,
which are responsible for the production of eggs.
ducts between the ovaries and vent in most female fish, along which the ripe eggs
pass during spawning.
Oviparous Fish fish that lay eggs from which
the young later hatch. All skates, some sharks and rays, and most bony fish are
Ovoviviparous Fish fish whose eggs are fertilized and
hatched within the female's body. The eggs are enclosed in separate membranes
and the embryos within them receive no nourishment from the mother. Most sharks
and rays are ovoviviparous.
Oxbow a lake formed by a change in
the course of a river channel.
arodthat can be disassembled into sections short enough to be stowed in a
Palm to retard the amount of line a fish pulls off
a fly reel by pressure from the fisherman's hand against the edge of the reel
Palmered (fly-tying) a hackle feather that is wrapped
around the length of a hook's shank.
Palming Ring the uncovered
edge of a fly reel spool.
Panfish individually or collectively,
any of several species of fish (perch, sunfish, crappie) that are small enough
to be fried in a pan.
Parabolic Action (of a rod) an action that
extends the entire length of the rod.
Parachute (fly-tying) a
fly tied with its hackle wrapped parallel to the hook shank.
Hackle dry-fly hackle that is wrapped horiziontally over or under the hook
shank on a base of wings or feather stems to achieve a parachute effect on the
fly's descent to the water and to provide outrigger flotation.
a young salmon or trout up to the age of two years, identifiable by dark bars
on the fish's sides (called "parr marks").
Party Boat A
large sea-going craft that is designed to allow a large number of anglers to fish
simultaneously. Also called a head boat or open boat.
Rig is a rig borrowed from ocean fishing and adapted to freshwater applications.
A weight (bell sinker in US) is tied onto the end of the line and a loop is placed
four to 12 inches from the weight. A leader and hook attached to the loop. Variations
include using a swivel instead of the loop.
reoccurring situation or presentation that can be replicated to get fish to bite.
Pawl a pivoting projection that engages with the teeth of a sprocket,
part of the drag system of some reels.
Pectoral Fin the fin located
just behind a fish's head.
Peg considered your fishing space
either assigned to you or selected by draw in coarse fishing.
Fish fish that live at the surface, in the upper waters, of the open ocean.
Pelvic Fins The pair of fins on the lower body of a fish; also called
pH the pH number of a liquid, such as water, indicates
its acidity or alkalinity. Pure water has a pH of 7; water with a pH of less than
7 is acidic, and water with a pH of more than 7 is alkaline. Acid rain typically
has a pH of less than 5.
Pharyngeal Teeth teeth at the back of
the throat, found in many fish species such as the members of the carp family.
These teeth crush food as it is swallowed.
to glow in the dark after exposure to a light source.
Interval during a day when sunlight is present.
the process by which chlorophyll cells in green plants use the sun's energy
to manufacture a simple sugar from water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is a by-product
of this process.
Phytoplankton Tiny plants suspended in water.
PFD a "personal flotation device," or life jacket.
Pillar one of the crossbars on a reel that support the sides of the
Piscivorous of or pertaining to species of fish that eat
other fish such as pike, muskie and barracutta. Most fish with teeth eat other
Pisciculture the breeding and rearing of fish, for example
in hatcheries and fish farms.
Pit flooded, manmade water that
is a by-product of excavation.
Pitch Sound determined by the frequency
of sound waves.
Pitching to cast a lure to a specific target with
an effortless, low trajectory presentation.
Pivot Point the weedline
or outside edge of a line of weeds.
Plankton Organisms drifting
in a body of water.
Play to maneuver a fish in a give-and-take
manner prior to landing it.
Playing a fish The process of tiring
a fish so it can be landed.
Pliobond See Prairie Multi-Purpose
Plug a lure usually made of plastic or wood and shaped
and painted to resemble a baitfish; the category includes crankbaits and stickbaits.
Plummet cone shaped or clamshell weight which attached to the
hook by cork or silicone inset
Pocket an indentation on a stream
bottom below a run or riffle.
Pocket Water a relatively calm
area of water, often behind a large rock in a stream or river, where fish are
likely to hold.
Point point of land that extends out into the
Polarized Capability of breaiing up sunlight into directional
Pole Winder see Winder
Poly Wing a
transparent synthetic wing material.
Poly XXX extra-fine polypropylene
dubbing material similar in texture to Andra Spectrum material and beaver underfur.
Pond small artificial or natural body of water. Area, depth, and water
quality are factors in the resulting fishery.
Pool deep section
of the stream where the water is slow and has the appearance of a swimming pool
and is usually found just downstream of a fast narrow run.
a lure having a solid body that "pops" through the water, used for bass,
bream, inland stripers and bluefish.
Population Group of animals
of the same species within a geographical area that freely interbreed.
Population Density the number of individuals occupying a certain area.
For example, the number of bass per acre.
Position The spot from
which an angler fishes a particular location.
Positive Feeding Mood
an appetite mood. The attitude of actively feeding fish.
Limit The number of fish that an angler may keep at one time.
Front that period after a weather front. Usually used in reference to a cold
front when the atmosphere become clear and bright, accompanied by strong winds
and a significant temperature drop.
Post Spawn Period the period
after the fish have laid eggs and taken care of their young.
Summer Period a period of the fish cycle following the Summer Period. It can
mean a week or more of terrific fishing.
species of fish that migrate within freshwater.
for measuring the strength of fishing line; the amount of pressure that will break
Practice Plug A lure-sized, hookless, soft-plastic, or
rubber object designed to be used for practice casting. These are obviously safer
to use than the real thing and won't hook interested bystanders or inquisitive
pets. Tackle shops carry them.
Prairie Multi-Purpose Adhesive a
latex-based, flexible cement.
Precambrian Shield the Canadian
Shield. A geological rock formation covering much of eastern and central Canada
and some of the north central USA.
Predator an animal that lives
by preying upon others.
Predatory Fish any fish that preys on
other living creatures, particularly other fish.
an inter-relationship between a species and an accessible and suitable forage.
Preferred Food food or forage best suited to a species' basic needs.
Premaxillary the front bone of the upper jaw of a fish.
in bony fish, the bone at the rear of the cheek, just in front of the gill
Present to offer bait to a fish, usually by means of casting.
Presentation Combination of bait or lure, rig, tackle, and technique
used to catch fish.
Pre-spawn period when fish are on the way
to, or in the vicinity of their spawning areas.
Pressure an intense
amount of fishing activity on a lake, stream, or any other specific area of water.
Prespawn period The period of the fish cycle immediately before
spawning when fish position themselves near their spawning grounds.
Period the period of the fish cycle immediately following postspawn. Fish
mood is often positive, but they establish a wide variety of patterns.
Prey Fish that often are eaten by other fish species.
a short wood or metal club used to dispatch a fish in a humane manner.
Prismatic (or Prismalite) Mylar Tape an adhesive Mylar tape that reflects
light with a prism effect. It is available in many tackle stores and custom automobile
Prop Bait Topwater plug with one or more propellers at
the front or back.
Pulling Water hydro-electric power plant lakes
pull water to make electricity and the artificial current it creates elevates
fish activity into a feeding position.
Pump to lift a rod toward
the angler, then rapidly wind the line that the movement has made slack (a technique
used in playing a fish).
Pupa inactive stage in the life cycle
of many insects between the larval and adult forms
the policy of encouraging anglers to keep stocked fish they catch, subject
to size and limit restrictions.
Pyloric Caeca fleshy, fingerlike
tubes at the junction between the stomach and intestine of a fish. They produce
enzymes that play a part in the digestive process.
the bone that joins the upper jaw of a fish to its skull.
Cast (fly-fishing) a cast made directly across a stream and allowed to drift
until the fly is as far downstream as the amount of line permits.
Rig European-style system for hooking live or dead baits, which includes 2
hooks and allows hooks to be set immediately following a strike.
a peacock herl stem from which the feathers have been removed, used in tying
such flies as the Quill Gordon.
Quivertip rod tip indicator that
consists of a thin fiberglass tip sliced into the rod or screwed in via a special
rod tip. They come in a variety of sizes, lengths and resistances for various
Tag (Transmitter): Device emitting high-frequency radio signals which when
attached to an animal indicates its location.
Range Area over
which a species is distributed.
Rattlebait Hollow-bodied, sinking,
lipless crankbaits that rattle loudly due to shot and slugs in the body cavity.
RattleTrap the largest selling and most effective lipless crankbait
ever invented. Great lure to use almost year round to locate a variety of fresh
and saltwater fish.
Rays soft or spiny supporting elements of
Recruitment Process by which fish hatch and grow to
Redd a female fish's breeding nest.
Reeds bulrushes or rushes in the water.
Reef Rocky hump
in a body of water.
Reel A device attached to a fishing rod that
dispenses and retrieves fishing line via a crank.
A place where water is collected and stored.
Resting Spot Location
used by fish not actively feeding.
Retractor a spring device that
holds small tools on a vest. also Zinger
Reversed a hook having
its point angled to the left of the shank; the opposite of a Kirby hook.
Reversed-taper Handle a rod handle that tapers toward the butt end.
Riddle course screen of one to three mills which allows things like
corn meal and sawdust fall through. It is also used to separate old skins, dead
maggots, etc. from the live maggots.
Riffle a small, usually shallow
rapid with white caps caused by large object in a stream or river that the water
is flowing over or around.
Rig a fishing boat; the hook, snell
and other terminal tackle for livebait fishing; assembling tackle.
Bank see Banks
Ring a rod guide in the shape of a circle.
Riparian of or pertaining to river banks.
loose rock, stacked on a bank by mother nature or man that transitions into
the water to help prevent erosion. This ia great place where crustaceans like
Rise The action of a fish coming to the surface to take
an insect; the taking to the air of a larg hatch of mayflies or other insects
on which trout feed.
River (or creek) Channel the original river
or creek bed which was flooded when a reservoir was formed.
refers to a river-like environment.
Rod A long, slender, and
extremely lightweight tube made of fiberglass, graphite, or a composite of the
two. Don't call your rod a pole (unless you want to pretend you're Huckleberry
Finn), which doesn't take a reel.
Rod action Rod stiffness.
RodSocket see Butt Pad.
Roe a collective term for
fish milt and ova.
Roll Cast (fly-fishing) a cast in which the
fly is lifted off the water and rolled forward in a single motion.
wad A washed-out stump with its root system intact, normally lying in a stream
Rubber Hackle latex rubber strands from .03 to .12mm
Run a fast-flowing stretch of river; the movement
of fish inshore or upstream for spawning; the flight of a hooked fish trying to
escape; a small stream or brook.
(fly-tying) a strip of feathers taken from the center of the Cape.
Salad is the collection of moss or grass that gets caught on a lure or
hook from a bad retrieve over a weed or grass bed.
level of dissolved salts in the water. Salmonid belonging to the family
of fish that includes trout, salmon, and char.
containing a high level of dissolved salts.
Sand Spike A long
hollow tube used to hold a surf rod after a bait is cast out. The spike is pushed
into the sand and the rod butt slid inside. A pin inside the spike supports the
butt and keeps the reel from rubbing against the edge.
of a set of thin bony overlapping skin growths that forms a protective outer body
layer on most species of fish.
School of Fish a group of the
same species of fish that is traveling together.
Schooling Fish is
a known pattern where a group of fish travel together.
caused by flowing water; a shallow, fast-flowing, gravel-bottomed stretch of river.
Scotchgard a 3M Comany silicone product used primarily as a water
and oil repellent.
Sculpin a small baitfish, which the muddler
fly was designed to replicate.
Sea Anchor a cone-shaped bag,
usually made of canvas, which can be trailed behind a drifting boat to slow it.
Seam the boundary or transition point between two currents moving
at different speeds.
Season the period during the year when a
species of fish may be legally caught and kept.
Fish movements from one area of a body of water to another, often in response
to spawning urge or changing food conditions.
of the rod to which the reel is attached.
Secondary Cove a small,
shallow cove connected to a larger cove.
Sediment particles of
ground material settling to the bottom of water.
of water level in a large lake or reservoir caused by strong directional winds.
Selective Harvest Deciding to release or harvest fish, based on species,
size, and relative abundance.
Seminal Vesicle a small gland that
adds nutrient fluid to the milt of a male fish during spawning.
Organ Biological system involved in sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch, or
lateral line sense.
Set to tug on the line so as to fix the hook
in a fish's mouth, as in the phrase "to set the hook."
Rig Rig that's cast into position on the bottom to await a strike.
Shallow-water Zone a lake zone. The area out to the first major drop-off.
Shank the long, usually straight, portion of a hook between the eye
and the bend.
Shield Water body of water located on the Precambrian
or Canadian Shield. Specifically, a body of water located in an area where the
nutrient-producing rock and sediment layers in the basin and surrounding terrain
were eroded by glaciers.
Shock Leader A short, strong section
of line tied to the end of a fishing line, used when large and/or toothy fish
are the quarry.
Sidewinder-style wings quill wings tied to the sides of
the fly's thorax to imitate mayfly wings and provide outrigger flotation.
Silt Fine sediment on the bottom of a body of water.
a method of fishing in which the lure, fly, or bait is made to rise and fall
alternately during the retrieve by raising and lowering the rod tip.
Sink-tip a floating fly line with a sinking tip, used to fish flies just
below the furface.
Sinker A weight that attaches to a fishing
Slack tidal water where there is little surface movement
during the interval between the ebbing and flowing tides; a stretch of river with
very little current, for instance above a dam.
Slick a sand or
clay bar, point or drop-off devoid of weeds, brush, rock or boulders, etc. A section
of calm surface water in a river.
Slip a narrow strip of feather,
Slips are widely used in fly tying.
Slot Limit A law that puts
both a minimum and a maximum size on a species.
Shock Leader a
heavy leader that protects against the line's breaking or being damaged by the
impact of a heavy fish.
Shooting Head a weighted attachment to
a fly line used to achieve greater casting distance.
artificial fly that resembles an insect or another bait, but not any specific
Single-Action a reel on which one revolution of the
winder knob produces one revolution of the spool
Sinker a weight,
of lead or another material, attached to a line to make it descend faster and
Sinking Tip the front portion of a type of fly line
that takes the fly below the water's surface.
method of putting small lures under overhangs in a manner to skipping a flat rock
across the water.
Skulling Quietly paddling a boat with a small
Slab refers to a large fat-bellied crappie.
Float Float with hole for sliding freely on line.
Sinker with a hole for sliding freely on line.
aquatic vegetation matted on the surface.
Slough Cove or backwater
on a reservoir or river.
Slot Limit Type of regulation that prohibits
harvesting fish within a specified length range.
Solunar periods Daily
best-fishing times, based on the moon's gravitational pull on water (tides).
Slow Roll Spinnerbait presentation in which the lure is retrieved
slowly through and over cover objects.
Smolt the third stage in
the life of a young salmon, or trout, when the fish is capable of migrating.
Snag Brush or tree in a stream or river.
Snake a one
or two foot rod guide made of a single piece of extended spiral metal resembling
a coiled snake.
Snaketrolling a system of boat control in which
a lure or bait is trolled in a weaving manner to cover a wide area and a range
of depth levels.
Snell a length of leader that is permanently
wound around shank of the hook.
Social Condition one of three
elements helping to determine a species' locational pattern. It includes population
density, food availability, competitive species, and how these interrelate.
Soft Bottom bottom of a body of water that is typically contains silt
Solitary Occupying habitat without close association
to other animals.
Sonar Electronic fishing aid that emits sound
waves underwater and interprets them to depict underwater objects.
hackle a hackle feather found on the shoulder of a rooster whose stiff fibers
are ideal for tying tails and spider and skater patterns.
Um term used when you catch a bunch of fish in a given day. Most of the fish
caught are large and tug hard on your line.
Spawn ability of a
female fish to lay eggs.
Spawn Period a brief period of the fish
cycle when a species reproduces. This period is directly linked to seasonal progression
and suitable temperatures.
Species closely related organisms which
produce offspring when they mate.
Species interaction How various
species react to each other in terms of feeding, population density, and competition
Speed Control one of the two primary factors in
bait or lure presentaton. The other is depth.
system of boat control in which a lure is trolled behind a fast-moving boat.
Spey a long two-handed rod customarily used for salmon and steelheads.
Spey cast a cast in which the fly does not travel above or behind
Spine Stiff, sharp segment of fin.
a type of lure having a metal or plastic blade that rotates around a shaft.
Spinnerbait a lure composed of one or more spinners on one wire
arm and a hook on another arm.
Split-cane describes a rod made
of bamboo strips
Split Shot Small, round lead sinkers with a slot
cut about halfway throught them which allows them to be pinched onto fishing line.
Spooking frightening or "turning off" one or more fish.
Spool the part of the reel around which the line is wrapped.
Spoon a flat or slightly curved metallic lure with a hook at one end.
Sportfish Fish species pursued by anglers.
fishing for recreation, as distinguished from commercial reasons.
Sportsman's Goop Cement (or shoe goop) a waterproof latex glue that is
strong and flexible. It can be found in athletic stores. Thin with toluene or
Spot short description referring to the spotted
Spring Tides The tides that occur around the time of full
and new moons. They have larger rises and falls than those at other times of the
Sproat a hook shape characterized by a gently angled bend.
Sprocket a toothed wheel, part of the drag system of some reels.
Spud a long-handled chisel used in ice-fishing to make holes
in the ice.
Standing Part the main portion of a line.
Stand-up Fishing Playing a large gamefish while standing instead of strapped
into a fishting chair. The angler wears a belt harness with a gimbal that holds
the rod butt. Some anglers feel that stand-up is more sporting; others believe
it's a more effective technique to wear a fish down because you can move about
the boat to apply leverage on the fish.
StarDrag a five-spoked
wheel on some bait-casting reels that controls the drag mechanism.
a floating plug with no lip or other attachment that would produce action.
Stickup any place in the water where timber, grass, rocks, bushes,
pipes or anything that provides a place for fish to ambush their prey.
Stock to increase the population of a body of water by introducing (usually
Stocking Releasing hatchery-raised fish
into a body of water.
Stocking-Foot Waders waders that do not
have attached boots.
Stonefly an insect of the order Plecoptera,
characterized by wings that fold over its body.
lingering apart from others of their species after a movement.
a variety of fly characterized by long trailing feathers or hair intended
to replicate a baitfish.
Stress State of physiological imbalance
caused by distrubing environmental factors.
Strike the act of
a fish's taking the bait, usually in an emphatic manner.
an involuntary reflex action prompted by a bait or lure. Fish are made to
Strike Indicator a float or roll-on device on your leader
that is pulled below the water surface by a striking fish.
Zone range of water depth in which a fish will react to your lure presentation.
Stringer a rope or chain on which fish may be kept alive in water.
Strip to release or retrieve line off a reel by a series of short
Stripping Basket (fly-fishing) an open container worn
on an angler's waist to hold unwound line.
Structure the configuration
of terrain and other objects (logs, rocks, piers) above and below the water surface,
interpreted by fisherman to determine likely places to find fish.
Condition one of three elements which determine a species' locational patterns.
Structure includes bottom configuration, bottom content, water characteristics,
vegetation types and water exchange rate.
Structural Element almost
any natural or manmade, physical feature in a body of water.
Area of an impoundment where stands of timber have been cut prior to impoundment,
leaving stumps below the surface.
Suboperculum in bony fish, the
rear lower bone of the gill cover.
Substrate Type of bottom in
a body of water.
Summer Peak Period a short period in the fish
cycle after the Presummer Period when fish are grouped in advantageous feeding
Summer Period a period in the fish cycle when fish generally
hold to patterns established during the last part of the Summer Peak Period.
Supracleithrum a bone at the upper rear of the skull of a fish. It
is one of the bones that support the pectoral fin.
Surface Film the
apparent elastic-like film on the surface of water, which is created by surface
Surface Tension the natural tendency of the surface of
water (and other liquids) to behave like an elastic sheet. It is caused by forces
acting between the water molecules: the molecules at the surface are much more
strongly attracted to each other, and to the molecules below them, than they are
to the molecules of air above them.
Suspended Fish fish that are
hovering considerably above the bottom in open water.
Swan Shot Leger
is a running leger that has heavy split shot clipped to both sides of a length
of line looped over the main line.
Swim the stretch of a river,
or the part of a pond or lake, that is being fished in at a particular time.
Swimfeeders are hollow tubes one half to one inch in diameter which
are attached to the line instead of a weight (commonly weights are still added)
and are filled with bait or groundbait.
Swim (Gas) Bladder Organ
of most bony fish that holds a volume of gas to make them neutrally buoyant at
Swingtip legering system to detect the shyest
Swivel a rotating piece of tackle that prevents line
a collective noun for fishing equipment, especially rods and reels.
Tag-and-Release a saltwater and freshwater fishing technique in which an
identification tag is attached to the fish before it is released.
End the part of a line in which a knot is tied; also, the small portion of
line that remains after a knot is tied and that is normally trimmed.
Tail to lift a fish by its tail. Also (of a fish), to swim in shallow water
with only it tail visible.
Tailwater Area immediately downstream
from a dam.
Target species The species an angler is trying to
Temperature Tolerant Able to function in a range of temperatures.
Terminal rig The combination of hooks, sinkers, floats, snaps, swivels,
leaders, and knots used to hold a bait for presentation to fish.
Fishing-line accessories, such as sinkers, snaps, swivels, snap-swivels, and
Terrestrial A life form that lives on or in the ground
("terra firma") instead of in the water; and a fly that imitates such
a life form.
Tippet The end or last section of a flyfishing leaderk
to which the fly is tied.
Tailing Loop (fly fishing) created on
the forward cast as can be best described as what happens when the upper part
of the loop in a fly cast drops down near the and of the forward cast and tangles
with the leader, creating a knot (see wind knot)
channel below a dam into which impoundment waters are released
a stream or river formed by runoff from a dam.
Take (of a
fish) to seize the bait.
Tandem spinner bait usually with two
Taper an area that slopes toward deeper water.
Tapered describing a rod, line, or leader that is thicker at one end than
Target Boards typically used with a swingtip or quivertip
and consists of a board on a stick places as a background to the tip. When a strike
is happening you will have a steading background to watch.
Strength the maximum stress that a line can withstand before it breaks.
Terminal Tackle a term that refers collectively to bobbers, sinkers,
leaders, hooks, lures, and other gear that go at the end of a line.
Terrestrial any of the insects that live on land but that often fall into
water (such as ants and grasshoppers), or a bait that resembles such a creature.
Test the measure of a line's tensile strength (expressed as "X-pound
Testes the reproductive glands (gonads) of a male
fish, which are responsible for the production of sperm.
rigging method where the hook point is enclosed in the body of a plastic weight
to make it weedless and a small weight is added above the hook on the line to
make it sink.
Thermocline temperature stratification in a body
of water that varies depending on the time of the year.
section between the head and abdomen of an insect.
a hackle wrapped at crisscross angles rather than perpendicular to the hook
Throat (fly-tying) a hackle tied only on the underside
of a fly.
Tie Into a colloquial phrase meaning to hook a fish.
Tight-action Plug a lure with short, distinct, side-to-side movements.
Tilt Fishing a technique used in ice fishing; it is also known as
Tip the topmost portion of a rod.
the guide at the end of a rod.
Tippet the thinnest portion
of a leader to which the fly is tied; also, a section of monofilament tied on
to the leader as a replacement for the original tippet.
ice-fishing indicator that signals a strike by a change of its signal's position.
Toad Montana for big fish no matter what the species.
Topbait describing a plug designed to move along the water surface.
Topwater Plug a floating lure designed for use on the surface of the
Total Environment both the body of water a species lives
in and any outside stimuli influencing it.
Touch Leger keeping
the line in hand while waiting for a strike.
Trace is a European
term used to describe a leader on the end of your fishing or fly line.
Tracking Following radio-tagged or sonic-tagged animals.
A plastic skirt, grub, pork rind, livebait, or other attractor attached to
a lure to entice fish.
Trailer Hook An extra hook attached to
a lure's rear hook to catch fish that strike behind the lure.
Electronic part of a sonar unit that receives sound impulses and converts
them to visual images.
Transition (Bottom) the point where one
type of bottom material changes to another type.
Treble Hook a
hook composed of three bends and points that share a single shank.
Worm floating worm that produces a darting like action when rigged texas style
with no weight on a spinning rod. Great searching lure to use to locate fish year
round when you suspect them shallow.
Transition point where on
bottom material changes to another
Tributary Stream or river flowing
into a larger river.
Trico abbreviation of Trichoptera, a tiny
caddis insect or a fly that represents such an insect.
action or characteristic in a lure or fly that creates a positive stimulus in
a fish to attack it.
Troll to fish by towing a plug or another
bait behind a moving boat.
Trolling Motor electric motor that
allows the angler to slowly maneuver the boat in a precise manner in shallow water
to stalk fish.
Trophic Relating to the fertility of a body of
Trude a variety of dry fly characterized by a bucktail
wing tied parallel to the hook shank and pointing toward the bend.
Murky water, discolored by suspended sediment.
disturbed by strong currents.
Turnover Period a very brief period
in the fish cycle when some lakes or reservoirs are in turmoil. A mixing or "turning
over" of the water takes place as cold water on the surface settles and warmer
water from below rises. This turnover re-oxygenates and homogenizes lakes that
have thermoclined (layered according to waater temperture) in summer.
Tube Fly a fly, used primarily for steelhead and salmon, that is tied on
a thin tube. The tube, which fits over a hook, slides back toward the line to
expose the hook when a fish strikes.
Tuffilm a clear, flexible,
plastic spray used in graphic arts. It is sold in art stores and some fly-tying
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
method of moving tackle by lifting and falling the bait in a given area to
get the fish's attention and trigger a strike.
Two Story Lake a
body of water where warm-water species inhabit the upper portion and cold-water
species inhabit the deeper portion.
(UV) Light Radiation with wavelengths shorter than 4,000 angstroms; beyond
violet in the color spectrum.
Undercut Bank An area along a stream
or riverbank where currents have washed dirt from under the edge of the bank,
providing a shady hiding place for fish.
Unloading the process
by which the weight of a lure or fly line is released from a rod during the forward
cast, so that the rod can propel the lure or line (see also Loading).
Up Locking Reel Seat place at the butt end of a fly rod that holds the
fly reel into position. Recommended when purchasing a rod due to the fact it will
hold the reel into position and provide you with enough at the bottom end of a
rod for a mini-fighting butt.
cree hackle feathers with an irregular three or four-color pattern or barring.
Feathers often differ in pattern and color on the same hackle neck.
Deferens the duct that carries sperm from the testis of a spawing male fish.
Vent the anus of a fish. It is also the orifice through which a spawning
female fish lays her eggs (or, in the case of a viviparous fish, gives birth)
and through which a male fish discharges his milt during spawning.
Fin the fin located on the front of a fish's abdomen.
an individual segment of the backbone of a fish.
creature that has a backbone, for instance a fish or a mammal.
Fish fish whose ripe eggs are fertilized and hatched within the female's body;
they give birth to live young. Unlike those of ovoviviparous fish, the developing
embryos receive nourishment from the mother. Some sharks and some bony fish, such
as surfperch, are viviparous.
Vise a clamping and post unit that
hold hooks to be wrapped with fur, feathers and other items to imitate a give
fish species food source(s).
Vomerine Teeth teeth on the vomer,
a bone at the front of the roof of the mouth of bony fish.
staff A pole used by some wading anglers to negotiate swift currents.
Wake Fly a dry fly that creates a splashy, fish-attracting wake when
pulled across or through the surface of the water.
technique that makes the lure dart across the surface in a back-and-forth manner.
Water Characteristics the characteristics of a body of water, usually
referred to in terms of mineral content (soft, few minerals; medium, some minerals;
hard, many minerals). The mineral amount determines fertility.
Color the clarity of a body of water. There are three basic degrees of water
clarity: clear (6-foot-plus visibility), stained (2-to 6-foot visibility) and
dark (less than 2-foot visibility).
Watercraft European basic
approach of finding and catching fish.